How do I decide where I should file my claim?
Georgia law requires that you file your case in the county in which the defendant (the party you are filing the claim against) resides. This requirement is referred to as “venue.”
When suing an individual, including a person operating a business as a sole proprietor, the proper venue is the county where the defendant resides.
When suing a business that operates as a partnership, the suit should be filed in the county in which at least one of the owners resides.
When suing a corporation, the suit should be brought in the county which the corporation has designated with the Secretary of State as its registered office.
The name and address of a registered agent can be verified by checking online at the Secretary of State website at https://ecorp.sos.ga.gov/BusinessSearch. If the suit will name more than one defendant, you can file your case in any county in which venue would be proper for at least one of the defendants, if they are jointly and severally liable. You are responsible for deciding where to file suit.
If I file my case in this court in error, will I get a refund of the fees that I paid?
If you file a case in a Magistrate Court that does not have jurisdiction or where the venue is improper, the Court will not refund the fees you paid to file the case. However, there are other remedies available to you. For instance, a case can be transferred when a defendant cannot be found for service in Jeff Davis County and lives in another county. If the case needs to be filed in another Georgia court, you can ask the Judge to transfer the case to that Court. There is no additional fee to transfer the case to a Magistrate Court in another county. Your case file and the filing fee you have already paid will be transferred by the Deputy Clerk of the Court to the Clerk of the other county. However, because each county has different fees, you may have to pay additional fees to the other county.
There is a fee to transfer a case from Magistrate Court to State Court or Superior Court, no matter the county. Your case file and the filing fee you have already paid will be transferred by the deputy magistrate Clerk of the Court to the Clerk of the Court for the new county. However, you will have to pay a transfer fee and may have to pay additional fees for service in those courts.
In any of these situations, if service has been attempted, then your service fee will not be transferred.
I have been served with a complaint. What do I have to do now?
You can submit your answer in writing to the Court. You may prepare your own form or use one of the Court’s answer forms that are available to you at no cost. Another option is to consult with an attorney. You will find a link to the State Bar of Georgia on this page. The summons requires that you file the answer within thirty (30) days of being served. The date after service is counted as day one. If the thirtieth day falls on a day when the Court is closed (a weekend or legal holiday), the answer is due on the next day that the Court is open.
May I send my answer in the mail?
The date of mailing is not the date of filing. The date of filing is the date that the answer is physically received in the Clerk’s Office. If you are close to the deadline for filing your answer, you will be best served by bringing your answer to the court and filing it in the Clerk’s Office yourself. A delay in the mail being received will put you at risk of waiving your legal defenses.
Will the Court send a copy of my answer to the plaintiff?
The Court does not have an obligation to send a copy of your answer to the plaintiff. It is your responsibility to serve a copy of the answer to the Plaintiff by either personal delivery or first class mail. You must complete a certificate of service that must be filed with your answer. A certificate of service is your personal statement to the Court that you have mailed a copy of your answer to the plaintiff.
Is there a fee to file an answer?
No, there are no fees for filing an answer.
If I have a claim against the plaintiff may I include it with my answer?
Yes, if you believe that the plaintiff owes you money, you may file a counterclaim against the plaintiff and include that claim in the document that contains your answer to the plaintiff’s claim.
The thirty (30) day period for the filing of the answer has expired. What happens now?
On the thirty-first (31st) day after service, the case goes into default. However, a defendant has an additional fifteen (15) days to open the default by filing a late answer and paying all court costs along with the answer. While defendants “may” file an answer beyond the forty-fifth (45th) day following service, such answer may be a legal nullity and void.
When the defendant files an answer what happens next?
Once an answer is filed, the Court will issue a notice for a hearing date. Court hearings are scheduled at least fifteen (15) days but not more than thirty (30) days after the answer is filed. The plaintiff will receive a copy of the notice of hearing by mail. Defendants appearing to file their answer in person will be issued a hearing notice at that time. If the answer is mailed to the Clerk’s Office, then the hearing notice will be mailed to the parties in the case. Civil cases are scheduled for 9:00 am and 2:00 p.m. Hearings are scheduled for Monday thru Friday.
May I reschedule a court date?
In matters where the defendant has filed a timely answer, both the plaintiff and the defendant can request a reset without contacting the opposing parties as long as the Court receives the request to reset and the $10 reset fee at least seven (7) days prior to the court date. If one of the parties is seeking a continuance less than seven days prior to the court date, then it is the requesting litigant’s responsibility to contact the opposing party(s) to seek mutual agreement to the reset; however, if the opposing party(s) objects then the requesting party can submit a written request to the court. In some circumstances, the requesting party may have to appear in open court to request the reset. With respect to defaulted cases, i.e. a case in which the defendant has been served but has not filed an answer, then the plaintiff can request the reset seven days prior to the court date as long as the request and the $10 reset fee are received by the Court seven (7) days prior to the court hearing.
How do I issue a subpoena to require the attendance of witnesses or to get certain documents to the Court? A witness subpoena has to be served at least twenty four (24) hours before the hearing. There is a different subpoena for documents or things known as a “subpoena duces tecum.” It should be served on the custodian of the document being subpoenaed. The clerk’s office handling your case issues subpoenas. See generally O.C.G.A. 24-10-20, O.C.G.A. 24-10-21, The Georgia General Assembly Website and O.C.G.A. 24-10-21.
There are four ways to serve a subpoena:
Any person over the age of 18 years old may personally “hand” deliver (or “serve”) a subpoena to a witness or party to the lawsuit.
The party can complete the subpoena and a Sheriff's Entry of Service form and pay to have the Sheriff's Dept. serve the subpoena. This payment should be in cash, cashier’s check or money order. It may take a substantial time to locate and serve the witness, so be sure there is adequate time for that to be done.
Subpoenas may also be served by registered or certified mail or statutory overnight delivery, and the return receipt shall constitute prima-facie proof of service.
If the party is represented by an attorney, then you may serve the subpoena on the party’s counsel of record in any of the three previously listed ways.
What will happen in court when my case is heard?
Your case is likely to be one of many cases scheduled for a hearing on the day that you come to court. The judge will call the calendar, i.e. the list of cases to be heard and may give the parties the opportunity to talk to each prior to being heard in an attempt to see if the dispute can be resolved without the Court’s intervention. In many cases, particularly where the dispute involves an uncollected debt, the parties will resolve the case with a consent order for a payment plan. If the case cannot be resolved, the judge will call your case. Plaintiffs will present their claim first and any relevant supporting documents and witnesses. The defendant will then have an opportunity to respond with any witnesses or documents. Each side will have the opportunity to ask questions of the other parties’ witnesses.
The judge may also ask questions to aid in understanding the facts and the issues to be decided. The judge may rule from the bench, and you will typically leave that day with a copy of the judge’s written order. In some instances, the complexity of the case will require the judge to take the case under advisement and issue a written order at a later date. In that circumstance, a copy of the judge’s order will be mailed to all parties at the address on record with the Court.
The defendant was served but has not filed an answer. How do I get a default judgment?
A defendant has thirty (30) days to file an answer. The defendant has 15 additional days to open default by filing an answer and paying the court costs to the Clerk of Court. When a defendant fails to file an answer or pay court costs when filing a late answer, the case is referred to as being in “default.” When that occurs, the Court can enter a judgment in the case in favor of the plaintiff. If the defendant fails to file an answer, you must write to the Court to request the judgment. In some circumstances, you may be required to appear to prove damages. A notice of hearing will be sent if you are required to appear.
A judge will review the file and decide if the judgment can be entered automatically, without further evidence or hearing, or whether a hearing has to be scheduled to determine the amount of damages to be awarded in the judgment.
There are two kinds of damages, “liquidated “or “unliquidated.” A judgment can be issued immediately in a case of properly proved “liquidated damages.” However, where the damages are “unliquidated” or when a liquidated damages case has not been properly submitted, a judge will have a hearing.
Examples of “liquidated” or fixed damages would be the amount of money owed on an invoice, credit card account, or a contract. Damage claims in those cases typically do not require a default judgment hearing IF the plaintiff attached ALL the necessary documents to prove plaintiff(s) case, such as contracts, statements, invoices, for the exact amount claimed
“Unliquidated damages” are damages which are uncertain. These types of cases will be set for a default judgment hearing. The plaintiffs will have to prove the amount owed. Examples of “unliquidated damages” include damage to a car following an accident or defective workmanship cases. The fact that the defendant has failed to contest the claims does not change the nature of the unliquidated damage claim to a liquidated damage claim.
I have a judgment against the defendant, what do I do to collect on it?
There are a number of ways that you can enforce collection of a judgment. You may wish to consult an attorney or to do your own independent research for a complete understanding of all possible post-judgment collection remedies. Some of the more commonly used methods include filing a garnishment action, recording a Writ of Fi Fa on the general execution docket in Superior Court of the county where the defendant resides to create a lien on the defendant’s real estate or filing a levy to have the Marshal collect and sell the defendant’s personal property.
Does the Court report judgments to credit reporting agencies like Equifax and Trans Union?
The Court does not report information to credit reporting agencies and it does not control how long that information appears or what is reported. Court records are public records and credit reporting agencies can access that information. If you have a dispute regarding the reporting of the information by a credit reporting agency, then you will need to contact that agency. You can obtain certified copies of the Court’s records for a fee if you require them. Please note that while a credit reporting agency may only report a judgment on your credit report for seven (7) years, the Court’s record of that judgment is not purged after seven years.ut your business here.